Home Orchards | Apple Cultivars | Apple
Rootstocks | Pollination | Integrated Pest Management & Integrated Fruit
Production | Orchard Pest Management Fact Sheets |
Photo ID Sheets | Forms |
Harvesting | Picker
Contract | Farm Safety | On Farm Food Safety | Additional
Reading Material| Best
Management Practices for NS Apple Production
The roots and lower part of the
stem of the tree, below the graft union,
are called the rootstock. Each
rootstock has its own distinct
• degree of
• disease resistance
• site and soil adaptability
There are a large number of
rootstocks available. Depending on the characteristics for which they were
chosen, there can be a wide variation in performance. Rootstocks have therefore
been classified according to their potential vigour. In North America, the
classification system has five categories:
Some of the common rootstocks that
are commercially used in this area are:
• M.26 - 10'-14'
tall. Must be supported on a trellis or post system. Trees crop in 3 to 4 years.
Susceptible to fireblight.
• M.9 - 8'-10' tall. Trees tend to lean and
require support. Crops in three years. Moderately susceptible to fireblight.
• MM.111 -
16'-20' tall. Does not require support. Resistant to most diseases. Relatively
slow to crop (5-7 years). Produces moderate amounts of root suckers and
• MM.106 - 14'-16' tall. Unsupported, but will lean a little.
Produces crop at 4-5 years. Susceptible to collar rot. Not recommended on poorly
• M.7 - 16' - 18' tall. Must be supported with many varieties.
Trees produce a crop in 4-6 years. Produces numerous root suckers.
• Seedling -
18'-22' tall. Unsupported. Slow to crop (7-8 years). Resistant to most diseases.
are attracting attention, but these are still under evaluation. Some of the
promising rootstocks include:
• Ottawa 3
• Budagovsky 9
• CG series